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Kyphosis is an outward curvature of the spine causing a ‘hunchback’, and if the curve exceeds 45 degrees as in this case it is considered extreme, and can cause problems with eating and breathing. In this particular example, the condition the maximum curvature is at the spinous process of the tenth thoracic vertebra, which caused the chest to be forced over towards the abdomen. The condition can have various causes, from abnormal development to age, but here the vertebrae were deformed by infection with tuberculosis.

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